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中国社会科学院副院长高培勇:我们可以选择

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年07月19日 20:45:34
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(原)(标)(题)(:中)(国)(社)(会)(科)(学)(院)(副)(院)(长)(高)(培)(勇)(:我)(们)(可)(以)(选)(择)(什)(么)(样)(的)(减)(税)(降)(费)(?
  高)(培)(勇)((中)(国)(社)(会)(科)(学)(院)(副)(院)(长)(、中)(国)(社)(会)(科)(学)(院)(经)(济)(所)(所)(长)()
经)(过)(一)(段)(观)(察)(,我)(发)(现)(虽)(然)(社)(会)(对)(减)(税)(降)(费)(的)(呼)(声)(很)(高)(,讨)(论)(的)(氛)(围)(非)(常)(热)(烈)(,但)(是)(大)(家)(所)(讨)(论)(的)(减)(税)(降)(费)(不)(是)(一)(回)(事)(,都)(在)(自)(说)(自)(话)(。我)(认)(为)(首)(先)(应)(当)(勾)(勒)(出)(大)(家)(心)(中)(减)(税)(降)(费)(的)(蓝)(图)(,搞)(清)(楚)(我)(们)(可)(以)(选)(择)(什)(么)(样)(的)(减)(税)(降)(费)(?这)(是)(我)(们)(先)(要)(解)(决)(的)(问)(题)(。
把)(减)(税)(降)(费)(落)(到)(实)(处)(,要)(对)(减)(税)(降)(费)(进)(行)(精)(准)(的)(分)(析)(,这)(一)(定)(是)(建)(立)(在)(专)(业)(的)(基)(础)(上)(。因)(此)(,把)(减)(税)(降)(费)(从)(口)(号)(变)(成)(实)(际)(的)(行)(动)(,必)(须)(要)(回)(答)(五)(个)(问)(题)(:第)(一)(,为)(什)(么)(减)(税)(降)(费)(?第)(二)(,给)(谁)(减)(税)(降)(费)(?第)(三)(,减)(降)(什)(么)(税)(费)(?第)(四)(,拿)(什)(么)(支)(撑)(减)(税)(降)(费)(?第)(五)(,以)(什)(么)(途)(径)(减)(税)(降)(费)(?这)(五)(个)(问)(题)(是)(大)(家)(讨)(论)(减)(税)(降)(费)(问)(题)(时)(绕)(不)(开)(的)(。
在)(过)(去)(,这)(五)(个)(问)(题)(的)(答)(案)(是)(明)(确)(的)(。传)(统)(意)(义)(上)(的)(减)(税)(降)(费)(是)(在)(积)(极)(的)(财)(政)(政)(策)(之)(下)(实)(行)(的)(,彼)(时)(积)(极)(就)(等)(于)(扩)(张)(,积)(极)(的)(财)(政)(政)(策)(具)(有)(减)(税)(降)(费)(、扩)(大)(支)(出)(、增)(列)(赤)(字)(三)(个)(行)(动)(线)(索)(。
但)(是)(,现)(在)(宏)(观)(环)(境)(发)(生)(变)(化)(,考)(察)(减)(税)(降)(费)(的)(维)(度)(从)(单)(一)(变)(为)(双)(元)(。10月)(31日)(习)(近)(平)(总)(书)(记)(在)(政)(治)(局)(会)(议)(上)(提)(到)(我)(们)(要)(坚)(持)(新)(发)(展)(理)(念)(、供)(给)(侧)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(、高)(质)(量)(发)(展)(这)(些)(战)(略)(决)(策)(。这)(三)(个)(方)(面)(的)(概)(念)(或)(者)(基)(本)(的)(理)(论)(判)(断)(都)(是)(对)(应)(以)(往)(的)(政)(策)(的)(,新)(发)(展)(理)(念)(是)(区)(别)(于)(旧)(发)(展)(理)(念)(,供)(给)(侧)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(是)(区)(别)(于)(需)(求)(管)(理)(政)(策)(,高)(质)(量)(发)(展)(是)(区)(别)(于)(高)(速)(度)(增)(长)(。因)(此)(,我)(们)(需)(要)(在)(不)(同)(的)(话)(语)(体)(系)(、不)(同)(的)(平)(台)(上)(讨)(论)(减)(税)(降)(费)(的)(问)(题)(。
第)(一)(,为)(什)(么)(减)(税)(降)(费)(?我)(们)(需)(要)(回)(答)(,进)(行)(减)(税)(降)(费)(的)(目)(标)(是)(扩)(需)(求)(还)(是)(降)(成)(本)(,还)(是)(两)(者)(都)(要)(实)(现)(。以)(扩)(需)(求)(为)(目)(标)(时)(,要)(关)(注)(总)(量)(效)(应)(和)(需)(求)(侧)(,围)(绕)(可)(支)(配)(收)(入)(进)(行)(减)(税)(降)(费)(,可)(支)(配)(收)(入)(提)(高)(可)(以)(增)(加)(消)(费)(或)(投)(资)(,最)(终)(扩)(大)(社)(会)(总)(需)(求)(。但)(是)(现)(在)(增)(加)(了)(一)(个)(降)(成)(本)(的)(目)(标)(,在)(供)(给)(侧)(结)(构)(性)(改)(革)(中)(降)(成)(本)(是)(一)(个)(非)(常)(重)(要)(的)(前)(提)(,这)(时)(进)(行)(减)(税)(降)(费)(关)(注)(的)(是)(结)(构)(和)(供)(给)(侧)(,围)(绕)(产)(品)(价)(格)(进)(行)(减)(税)(降)(费)(。产)(品)(价)(格)(包)(括)(成)(本)(、税)(费)(、利)(润)(三)(个)(要)(素)(,我)(们)(希)(望)(通)(过)(降)(低)(税)(费)(成)(本)(来)(降)(低)(企)(业)(生)(产)(经)(营)(成)(本)(,最)(终)(提)(高)(供)(给)(质)(量)(和)(效)(益)(。但)(可)(以)(发)(现)(,两)(种)(目)(标)(下)(的)(减)(税)(降)(费)(是)(不)(同)(的)(,故)(而)(首)(先)(要)(回)(答)(目)(标)(是)(什)(么)(。
第)(二)(,给)(谁)(减)(税)(降)(费)(,有)(没)(有)(特)(定)(和)(重)(点)(的)(对)(象)(?以)(扩)(需)(求)(为)(目)(标)(的)(减)(税)(降)(费)(,瞄)(准)(于)(总)(量)(和)(需)(求)(侧)(,这)(时)(减)(税)(降)(费)(不)(用)(区)(分)(特)(定)(和)(重)(点)(对)(象)(,减)(税)(降)(费)(可)(以)(落)(实)(到)(个)(人)(或)(企)(业)(层)(面)(,是)(总)(量)(性)(的)(减)(降)(。但)(是)(以)(降)(成)(本)(为)(目)(标)(时)(,瞄)(准)(于)(结)(构)(和)(供)(给)(侧)(,此)(时)(只)(能)(在)(企)(业)(层)(面)(减)(税)(降)(费)(,调)(整)(的)(是)(涉)(企)(的)(税)(费)(,这)(时)(候)(就)(必)(须)(锁)(定)(特)(定)(和)(重)(点)(对)(象)(,只)(能)(是)(结)(构)(性)(的)(减)(降)(。
第)(三)(,减)(降)(什)(么)(样)(的)(税)(费)(?以)(扩)(需)(求)(为)(目)(标)(时)(,目)(的)(是)(增)(加)(个)(人)(可)(支)(配)(收)(入)(和)(企)(业)(可)(支)(配)(收)(入)(,因)(此)(所)(减)(的)(主)(要)(是)(直)(接)(性)(的)(税)(费)(。但)(是)(以)(降)(成)(本)(为)(目)(标)(时)(,关)(注)(的)(是)(企)(业)(和)(涉)(企)(税)(费)(,并)(且)(此)(时)(锁)(定)(减)(的)(是)(企)(业)(生)(产)(经)(营)(过)(程)(中)(的)(税)(费)(,只)(能)(以)(间)(接)(税)(费)(为)(主)(,在)(中)(国)(的)(现)(行)(税)(费)(制)(度)(下)(,也)(就)(是)(流)(转)(性)(税)(费)(。
第)(四)(,拿)(什)(么)(支)(撑)(减)(税)(降)(费)(?税)(费)(收)(入)(用)(来)(支)(撑)(政)(府)(财)(政)(支)(出)(,那)(么)(减)(税)(的)(同)(时)(是)(否)(要)(减)(少)(财)(政)(支)(出)(?根)(据)(平)(衡)(预)(算)(的)(乘)(数)(定)(律)(,假)(设)(减)(税)(100亿)(,如)(果)(同)(时)(减)(支)(100亿)(,社)(会)(总)(需)(求)(将)(减)(少)(100亿)(。因)(此)(,以)(扩)(需)(求)(为)(目)(的)(时)(,减)(税)(降)(费)(必)(须)(以)(增)(列)(赤)(字)(为)(支)(撑)(,否)(则)(减)(税)(降)(费)(无)(法)(达)(到)(效)(果)(。以)(降)(成)(本)(为)(目)(的)(时)(,则)(不)(能)(以)(增)(列)(赤)(字)(作)(为)(减)(税)(降)(费)(的)(支)(撑)(来)(源)(。同)(样)(假)(设)(减)(少)(100亿)(税)(费)(,但)(增)(加)(了)(100亿)(的)(赤)(字)(,从)(而)(增)(发)(了)(100亿)(国)(债)(。在)(这)(种)(情)(况)(下)(,第)(一)(,资)(源)(配)(置)(格)(局)(没)(有)(发)(生)(变)(化)(,都)(要)(从)(民)(间)(获)(取)(100亿)(;第)(二)(,国)(债)(要)(支)(付)(利)(息)(,所)(以)(总)(成)(本)(有)(所)(增)(加)(。因)(此)(,以)(降)(成)(本)(为)(目)(标)(时)(,减)(税)(降)(费)(的)(支)(撑)(只)(能)(是)(节)(用)(裕)(民)(,削)(减)(支)(出)(。
第)(五)(,以)(什)(么)(途)(径)(减)(税)(降)(费)(,是)(通)(过)(制)(度)(变)(革)(还)(是)(政)(策)(调)(整)(?大)(家)(所)(习)(惯)(的)(是)(逆)(周)(期)(调)(节)(的)(政)(策)(,即)(当)(总)(需)(求)(不)(足)(时)(,以)(政)(策)(性)(的)(安)(排)(来)(减)(税)(降)(费)(,当)(经)(济)(形)(势)(回)(转)(时)(,减)(税)(降)(费)(政)(策)(停)(止)(,回)(到)(原)(来)(的)(税)(费)(制)(度)(轨)(道)(上)(。例)(如)(前)(几)(年)(为)(了)(促)(进)(房)(地)(产)(销)(售)(,契)(税)(减)(半)(征)(收)(,为)(期)(两)(年)(。这)(种)(方)(式)(是)(临)(时)(性)(、季)(节)(性)(或)(者)(是)(权)(宜)(之)(计)(的)(减)(税)(。以)(扩)(需)(求)(目)(标)(的)(前)(提)(下)(,可)(以)(选)(择)(对)(冲)(性)(的)(、逆)(向)(调)(节)(、政)(策)(性)(安)(排)(的)(减)(税)(降)(费)(方)(式)(。然)(而)(,以)(降)(成)(本)(为)(目)(标)(时)(,只)(能)(通)(过)(税)(费)(制)(度)(改)(革)(实)(现)(减)(税)(降)(费)(。这)(两)(种)(方)(式)(不)(能)(混)(为)(一)(谈)(。
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